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毒澱粉: 順丁烯二酸酐化製澱粉之Q&A

 
 



摘自衛生署食品藥物管理局網頁 http://www.fda.gov.tw/TC/siteContent.aspx?sid=3473

【網頁更新日期:2013-05-30】

順丁烯二酸酐化製澱粉之Q&A

【發布日期:2013-05-13】:風險管理組

Q1:什麼是順丁烯二酸酐?

A1:(1)順丁烯二酸酐(Maleic anhydride)又名馬來酸酐或去水蘋果酸酐,常簡稱順酐。

(2)順丁烯二酸酐可應用於與食品接觸之包裝材料,遇水則轉變順丁烯二酸,為美國FDA及歐盟核准之間接食品添加物,也可能微量存在於蘋果酸或反丁烯二酸等合法的食品添加物中。

Q2:什麼是食用「化製澱粉」?

A2:取自作物穀粒或根部之天然澱粉經過少量化學藥品的處理,並經核准使用在食品即稱為食用「化製澱粉」。經處理的澱粉其黏度、質地及穩定性會提升,以應用在食品加工增加產品彈性的口感。

Q3:順丁烯二酸酐可以用來製造食用化製澱粉嗎?

A3:目前我國已核准可使用之食用化製澱粉共21項,但未包含經順丁烯二酸酐修飾之澱粉,因此順丁烯二酸酐並未核准使用於食用化製澱粉。

Q4:吃下被檢出順丁烯二酸的食品,會對人體造成毒性嗎?(5/25更新)

A4:(1)根據科學文獻資料顯示,順丁烯二酸的急毒性低,對於人類不具有生殖發育、基因等毒性,且亦無致癌性。

(2)美國EPA研究顯示,每天以100 mg/kg餵食大鼠兩年,並沒有發現會對腎臟有損傷;另有動物研究指出單一劑量(9 mg/kg)順丁烯二酸會對狗造成腎臟毒性,但分別以117、191或29 mg/kg餵食大鼠、小鼠與猴子,均未發現有腎毒性,顯示不同動物對順丁烯二酸敏感度不同。

Q5:吃下被檢出順丁烯二酸的食品有什麼樣的風險? (5/25更新)

A5:(1)說明:

依據歐盟評估資料,成人的每公斤體重每日耐受量(Tolerable Daily Intake, TDI)為0.5 mg(毫克),以60公斤的成人計算,每日耐受量為30 mg。假設產品中含順丁烯二酸濃度400 mg/kg(ppm),每日食用30公克產品估計,則每日所攝入順丁烯二酸量約12 mg。

(2)風險評估:

每日所攝入順丁烯二酸量約12 mg,此與60公斤的成人可忍受30 mg之劑量相比,仍在安全範圍之下。

Q6:我如何得知哪些食品被檢出含順丁烯二酸?(5/28新增)

A6:檢出含順丁烯二酸產品資訊,已公布於衛生署食品藥物管理局網頁「順丁烯二酸酐化製澱粉專區」之「檢出產品及原料名單」

http://www.fda.gov.tw/TC/site.aspx?sid=3482

 ,並將持續更新,以供消費者檢視並確認。

Q7:對於檢出含順丁烯二酸食品的處理原則為何?(5/28新增)

A7:衛生署食品藥物管理局已於局網「順丁烯二酸酐化製澱粉專區」公布「順丁烯二酸酐化製澱粉污染食品之處理原則」(http://www.fda.gov.tw/TC/siteContent.aspx?sid=3498 ),內容包括違規產品處置、業者處份以及相關措施之說明。

Q8:民眾若有疑問,可以在哪裡獲得資訊?(5/28新增)

A8:衛生署食品藥物管理局提供消費者保護專線 (02)2787-8200、0800-285-000 (上午8時至下午6時),相關資訊可參閱食品藥物管理局http://www.fda.gov.tw/網頁「順丁烯二酸酐化製澱粉專區」或食品藥物消費者知識服務網http://consumer.fda.gov.tw/網頁。

Q9:何謂「安全具結證明」?(5/30更新)

A9:澱粉原料業者須主動提供「安全具結證明」給下游販賣業者,另粄條、肉圓、黑輪、粉圓、豆花、粉粿、芋圓及地瓜圓等8種種類之販賣業者須將上游提供之具結證明張貼於明顯處供消費者檢視。「安全具結證明」包含下列二種文件之一:

(1) 具結書:是廠商對其所販售澱粉類原料皆不含「順丁烯二酸酐化製澱粉」,並符合我國食品衛生標準之書面證明。(具結書參考格式連結http://www.fda.gov.tw/TC/includes/GetFile.ashx?mID=133&id=23848&chk=f3784d6c-3a41-4a86-8f63-c10a57ad246b

(2) 檢驗報告:如澱粉類原料經過檢驗,亦可提供該產品之檢驗報告,作為安全具結證明之文件。

※業者所出具之具結書或檢驗報告,如為影本則須有該澱粉原料業者之公司章並註明「與正本相符」。

Q10:哪裡可以提供食品中順丁烯二酸的檢驗?(5/29更新)

A10:自本局公布「食品中順丁烯二酸與順丁烯二酸酐總量之檢驗方法」後,實驗室已陸續在其外部網站公布有接受本項目之委託檢驗,目前已向本局提報已建立SOP及品管資料之實驗室,本局已於專區提供可檢測之實驗室名單http://www.fda.gov.tw/TC/siteList.aspx?sid=3506

。本局將陸續公布可檢測實驗室名單,供各界委託檢驗參考。

Q11:食品的包裝材料會不會溶出順丁烯二酸呢?(5/29新增)

A11:(1)順丁烯二酸及順丁烯二酸酐可應用於與食品接觸的包裝材料,為美國食品藥物管理局(FDA)及歐盟核准之間接食品添加物(indirect food additive)。食品製造過程中,包裝材料可能會有微量的順丁烯二酸游離出來。

(2)歐盟訂定包裝材料中順丁烯二酸溶出限量(migration limit)為30 ppm。

Q12:民眾若有相關健康疑問,可以在哪裡獲得醫療諮詢資訊?(5/29新增)

A12:(1)為解除民眾健康疑慮,已開立衛生署台中醫院健康諮詢專線(04)2229-4411轉5605(上午8點至下午5點30分),經評估後如有必要,將轉介至相關門診進行後續追蹤。

(2)民眾如有因食用化製澱粉產品之相關健康疑慮,可就近至全國26家署立醫院(含療養院)看診,並由家醫科醫師視狀況協助轉介相關科別。



China Post news on 31-May-2013

Food scandal report passed to Singapore: MOFA



TAIPEI, Taiwan --Taiwan's representative office in Singapore has passed along the latest information regarding the measures taken in the wake of a scandal over tainted starch to the city-state's government, a Ministry of Foreign Affairs (MOFA) official said yesterday.

The move is part of efforts to show Singapore that Taiwan is doing its utmost to deal with the food scare and to restore Singaporeans' confidence in Taiwanese products, according to Chen Tien-chueh (陳天爵), director-general of MOFA's Department of International Information Service.



According to the information collected by Taiwan's overseas offices around the globe, Singapore is the only country so far that has expressed concern over the safety of Taiwanese food products amid a scandal in which some local products were found to contain industrial starch, Chen said.



Local media reports said Singapore's Agri-Food & Veterinary Authority (AVA) announced on Sunday that 11 kinds of Taiwanese products containing maleic acid-tainted starch have been pulled from the shelves.



In response, Chen said that Taiwan's representative office in Singapore immediately established contact with the AVA and provided information on measures Taiwan is taking to resolve the crisis.



The AVA also asked for the Taipei office's assistance to pass a request for more information to Taiwan's food safety authorities. Among the topics the AVA is seeking details on is a new policy that requires all starch manufacturers and resellers to obtain proof of their food products' safety and to make this proof public by June 1.



MOFA to Brief Food Safety to Ambassadors



Meanwhile, MOFA is also expected to work with the Department of Health (DOH) to brief foreign representatives in Taiwan in the near future on measures taken by the government.



“All these efforts are being taken to show the world the Taiwan government's transparency in dealing with the crisis,” Chen said.



His comments come amid allegations that the Foreign Ministry has failed to launch an international campaign to reaffirm Taiwan's food safety. The controversy flared earlier this month when the DOH seized about 10,000 kilograms of starch powder containing a chemical which has been found to cause kidney damage.



The scandal has already spread overseas, with authorities in Singapore, Malaysia and Indonesia reportedly having launched probes into the safety of Taiwanese food product.